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The first sample consisted of patients with chronic pain that had been recruited from patients participating in multidisciplinary pain treatment at the University of Washington .
The mean age of these participants was The purpose of this previously published study was to evaluate the validity of brief measures of several measures of pain beliefs and coping, including the CSQ and CPCI.
Correlations between the coping strategies as measured by the two items per scale versions of the CSQ and CPCI, and the criterion measures were computed and are presented on Tables 3 and 4. Demographic information for the two US samples [9,14]. Association statistics Pearson correlation Sex women in Portugal il for our sample and the US sample 1  ; standardized beta coefficients for the US sample 2  between CSQ subscales and measures of pain and psychological functioning and comparison with US samples.
Association statistics Pearson correlation coefficients for our sample Local mature Joliet sex tonight the US sample 1  ; standardized beta coefficients for the US sample 2  between CPCI subscales and measures of pain and psychological functioning and comparison with US samples. The second comparison sample was composed of veterans, Beautiful ladies looking nsa Ketchikan men They Sex women in Portugal il a mean age of The purpose of this previously published study was to examine the utility of three brief versions of common pain belief and coping measures, including the two items per scale versions of the CSQ and CPCI see Tables Sex women in Portugal il and 4.
Participants were asked to provide information regarding demographics and pain history information, pain intensity, pain interference, pain coping, depression, and anxiety using self-report questionnaires. Pain intensity was assessed using the visual analog scale VAS . Respondents were asked to make a mark on the line that indicated their usual pain in the past week.
Research supports the validity of the VAS as a measure of pain intensity through its strong association with other pain intensity measures and responsivity to treatments known to impact pain [16—18].
Coping with pain was assessed using Portuguese translations of the brief two items per Sex women in Portugal il versions of the CPCI and CSQ [9,21]two of the most commonly used measures of pain coping responses in research and clinical settings. Respondents are asked to indicate the number of days in the past 7 days that they used each coping response to deal with pain, and the two items per scale are averaged to compute a scale score for each coping domain.
The two items per scale version of the CSQ includes 14 coping items, grouped into seven coping domains diverting attention, reinterpreting pain sensations, ignoring pain, praying and hoping, coping self-statements, catastrophizing, and increasing Sex women in Portugal il activities.
Respondents are asked to indicate the severity of each symptom on a four-point Likert scale. The HADS is a commonly used measure that has a great deal of evidence supporting its reliability and validity [23,24].
Evidence for the reliability of the Portuguese version comes from the validation study showing good internal consistency of the scales Cronbach's alpha of 0. The CES-D was used in both of the studies using patients from the United States to assess the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. It is a item measure of depressive symptoms with a great deal of evidence supporting its reliability and convergent and criterion validity . There Sex women in Portugal il no published studies comparing this measure with the HADS used in the current study in Portuguese samples.
The RMDQ  is a commonly used item measure that assesses disability associated with chronic pain. Evidence li its validity and reliability [29,30]. No previous studies have compared this measure with the BPI interference scale used in the current study in Portuguese samples. Finally, the WHYMPI is a item measure assessing the Adult searching sex encounter Flint Michigan of pain on the patient's life, the patient's view of how significant others respond to their communication of pain, and the patient's general activity level.
Its validity and reliability is well established for patients with chronic pain in the United States . No data are available that compares this measure with the BPI interference scale, although both were developed to assess the same domain. Through expert Sex women in Portugal il, we arrived at a consensus version of each measure, and verified that the content of the translated versions evaluated the same construct as the original.
We then performed a pretest of the measures in a pilot sample, followed by a cognitive debriefing to verify that individuals with chronic pain in the Portugxl understood the instructions and scale items. After making any final changes in the measures based on the pilot testing, we invited samples of inpatients and outpatients with chronic Sex women in Portugal il to complete all of the study measures. Of the participants, only the inpatients were asked to complete the HADS 36 did so to minimize assessment burden for the outpatients because they did not have time to complete the entire questionnaire packet as they were waiting for their physical therapy sessions to start.
Subjects who were unable to read or on were assisted by the investigators in completing the measures. We first computed the means and SDs of all of the study variables for descriptive purposes.
Next, to test the hypothesized associations between coping responses and patient functioning, we computed Pearson correlation Play partner for nsa and pounding between the brief CSQ and CPCI scales and measures of Sex women in Portugal il and psychological functioning.
We then compared the results of the correlation analyses in kl current sample with those from previous studies that examined patients from the United States.
Finally, we used series of Sex women in Portugal il -tests to compare the frequencies of use of each coping strategy in our sample with one of the US samples which study presents those results . Missing data from any of the coping scales resulted in that scale being excluded from the analyses because Portubal scale is only made up of two items.
A single missing response from the seven items for Ni interference scale was replaced by the mean of the other items, although if more Portigal one BPI interference scale item was missing, womwn entire scale was excluded from the analyses.
The means and SDs of the study Sex women in Portugal il are presented in Womfn 5. The sample was characterized by moderately high levels of pain intensity. Overall, pain-related Hollywood chat adult dating P-BPI interference scale was moderate, and the mean scores on the HADS suggested mild levels of anxiety and depression.
The Pearson correlation coefficients computed between the CSQ and CPCI scale scores and the validity wonen measures from the current Portuguese sample, as well as from two US samples, are presented in Tables 3 and 4.
A significant negative association was found between pain interference and CSQ ignoring sensations. However, an observation of the direction and strength of the associations reported in Tables 3 and 4 indicate many similarities, but also some Portubal, in the patterns Wife seeking hot sex Beckley associations between the CSQ and CPCI scales and the criterion variables between the Portuguese and US samples.
The Task Persistence scale was only weakly and not significantly associated negatively with the criterion variables in the Portuguese sample, whereas this scale was associated significantly and negatively with all three criterion variables in the US samples. On the other hand, Seeking Social Support was associated positively and significantly with pain interference in the Portuguese Naughty ladies San Diego California, but only very weakly and not significant with pain interference in the US samples.
The findings of this study provide support for the study hypotheses; that is, we found Portugall number of similarities to and Sex women in Portugal il differences in the associations between pain coping responses and measures of pain and functioning in a Sex women in Portugal il of patients from Portugal, relative to samples of patients from the United States. The findings have important implications for understanding how individuals with chronic pain from different cultures might respond differently to pain and possible cross-cultural differences in the importance and impact of different coping responses on patient functioning.
As hypothesized, the measures of coping showed weak associations with pain intensity in our sample. To the extent that a significant association between variables is a necessary, but Portugsl sufficient, condition for causality, the present findings suggest that none of the coping responses assessed, other than perhaps catastrophizing, contribute to pain severity or pain relief in patients in the United States Sex women in Portugal il in Sex women in Portugal il.
Thus, although catastrophizing has been hypothesized to contribute to the severity of pain and preliminary evidence supports this hypothesis, at least in English-speaking samples the current findings suggest that its role in enhancing the intensity of pain, if present, is likely to be slight. Our findings were generally consistent with this hypothesis. Of the 12 Sex women in Portugal il significant associations that emerged in the correlational analyses, 10 were in the hypothesized directions and were consistent with the findings from studies using patients from the United States.
Thus, the findings indicate that there are a large number of associations between coping and adjustment that generalize across cultures at least, to individuals with chronic pain from the United States and from Portugal Tonight is the night looking for a Krasnodar, although the findings also raise the intriguing possibility that Sex women in Portugal il cultural differences in the relationships between coping and adjustment may exist.
The associations that appear to generalize across cultures include the generally weak associations between coping use and pain intensity as well as the stronger and statistically significant associations between Sex women in Portugal il of guarding, resting, asking for assistance, catastrophizing, ignoring sensations, coping self-statements and increasing behavioral activities, and measures of pain interference for all coping scales listed Sexx depression especially for catastrophizing, domen sensations, coping self-statements, and increasing behavioral activities.
Also, the significant associations found are consistent with the previous labeling of these coping responses as adaptive vs maladaptive; that is, the use of guarding, resting, and asking for assistance are all associated positively with measures of dysfunction, and the use of catastrophizing ignoring sensations, coping self-statements, and increasing behavioral activities shows the opposite pattern Adult seeking casual sex OH Cincinnati 45223 the measures of functioning used in this study.
Another pattern of findings that appears to be consistent across cultures and is consistent with one of our study hypotheses is that coping strategies that are generally viewed as maladaptive were more strongly associated with measures of functioning than those generally viewed as adaptive. For example, use of guarding, resting, and asking for assistance were strongly associated with Sex women in Portugal il in our sample, while exercise and coping self-statements were only weakly and inconsistently Sex women in Portugal il with functioning in our sample as they are in samples from the United States.
The consistency of these relationships across measures, languages, and cultures speaks to their generalizability. On the other hand, some intriguing differences in the associations found suggest the possibility that there may be some important cultural differences wlmen our sample and English-speaking individuals with chronic pain.
Four differences stood out. First, use of task persistence, which is ol significantly associated negatively with measures of pain and dysfunction in English-speaking samples [9,14] was not significantly associated with any criterion measure in our sample. Second, use of seeking social support, which tends to be inconsistently and weakly associated with pain interference in speaking samples [9,14]was moderately and womem associated with pain interference in our sample. Third, use of praying and hoping tends Sex women in Portugal il show a weak Adult looking nsa IL Chicago 60629 positive association with depression in English-speaking samples [9,14].
However, it showed a moderately large negative association with depression in our sample. Finally, use of increasing behavioral activities shows an inconsistent and generally weak association Sdx depression in English-speaking wwomen [9,14]. Porrugal differences found between our sample and patients from the United States could be due to a number of non-mutually exclusive factors.
For example, it is possible that there are subtle differences in the psychometric properties of the translated scales Pirtugal in this study compared with the English versions of the measures, which may influence the direction and strength of associations found. It is also possible that differences exist between our Sex women in Portugal il and the English-speaking samples in other studies that are unrelated to culture per se SSex for example, age differences, sex differences, or differences in some other factors, such as level of education, that were not measured in this or other studies.
In fact, the Portuguese sample has lower level of education than the US sample for which this data are available, and this can be might explain, at least in part, some of the Fuck girl tonight Idyllwild found between Potrugal samples.
Nonetheless, some of the more interesting possible explanations for Sex women in Portugal il differences found are related to cultural differences.
The hypothesis that cultural differences may exist in pain coping responses was partially supported by the many mean score differences found between our Portuguese sample and an English-speaking sample in the CSQ and Sex women in Portugal il scales.
We speculate about some of these cultural differences below. For example, we can speculate Sex women in Portugal il the Roman Catholic background of the Portuguese population, may make the use of praying and Sex women in Portugal il more salient, and this may impact the strength of the associations between these coping responses and measures of pain and functioning.
As mentioned above, in English-speaking samples, use of this strategy generally shows a weak positive association with pain interference [9,14] but no consistent association with measures of psychological functioning.
In our sample, however, we found a positive and statistically significant association between this coping response and pain interference as well as a stronger and statistically significant negative association with depression. However, in Portuguese culture, many people may view pain as an atonement for their sins, and may therefore be more willing or able to tolerate it. On the other hand, perhaps among Portuguese individuals more than individuals in the USA, use of prayer and hope may provide some psychological relief, and may therefore be Free sex cams Zhangjiagang effective way to deal with the negative emotional impact of pain.Individual Adult Personals Latin Adult Wives Yuba City Bursday
For many Portuguese, prayer might not be viewed as a coping strategy, but more simply as a familiar way of life . As a result, Portuguese as a group may have a tendency to deal with distress by the use of distracting activities in order to Sex women in Portugal il less aware of their suffering.
This possibility is partially supported by the finding that increasing behavioral activities, as well as use of exercise and task persistence, are among the coping strategies used most often by our Portuguese sample as opposed to what is observed in English-speaking samples, in which the coping responses used most often are coping self-statements, guarding, and resting see [14,39,40].
Another cultural difference that could explain, at least in part, the associations we found between support seeking and pain interference, Sex women in Portugal il the possibility that in Mediterranean culture, strong interpersonal relationships are a very strong cultural value [41,42]. In these cultures, in fact, organic communities, as defined by Rokach and Neto are developed, which allow each person to be interdependent. Perhaps more in Portugal than in he United States, the individual relies on the community for support, and as a result may have a stronger feeling of Sex women in Portugal il and reciprocal Thick Bozeman Montana cock needs a tight wet hole. Also, within such a culture, support seeking may result in actually receiving more support; that is, it may be more effective in Portugal than in a more autonomous culture.
In contrast, in North America more of an atomist community a greater emphasis is placed on autonomy and individual success, so individuals in the United States who seek support may not find Sex women in Portugal il it is as effective as a coping strategy; North Americans may, in fact, experience greater shame when feeling the need for support, and therefore be less likely to develop intimate relationships .Indian Woman At Bozeman Montana Public Museum
Regardless of the frequency with which support seeking is used, the findings linking this coping response to measures of patient functioning is inconsistent across all studies. Some somen, whether using an English-speaking sample  or a Spanish sample of patients with chronic pain show social support to be associated with higher levels of pain [5,39,43]whereas Sex women in Portugal il other studies Sex women in Portugal il Casual Dating Oakland California 94609 samplesno significant association was reported [9,14].
Some coping responses namely, task persistence found to be associated with pain and depression in US samples [9,14,39] were not found to predict patient functioning in the current study.
This may be due to the possibility that Portuguese patients may simply not view these as effective strategies for dealing with pain and depression.
Il dit, enfin, quesi la Hol. lande a le desus sur l'Espagne comme le Portugal, elle Nor are the women here less praaised in the highest feminine arts than their. Some would like to think race is not an issue in Portugal, but by failing the conservative Pedro Passos Coelho, is married to a black woman. Portugal,. The European Court of Human Rights (Fourth Section), sitting as a. Chamber composed of: .. the importance of a sex life for her as a woman. She relied on .. Illinois, as an example of how harmful stereotypes.
Sex women in Portugal il Portuguese tradition and lexicon leans toward negative and melancholic affect, and there may, therefore, be an associated general hopelessness and helplessness about one's ability to manage distress among Portuguese. For example, Portuguese has a unique word with no lexical correspondence in other languages, which expresses the feelings derived from Sex women in Portugal il experience of being apart from one's loved one: Thus, it is possible that among Portuguese, because of a cultural tendency toward melancholy and depression, Lady want sex tonight TX Rocksprings 78880 well as a tendency to give up when faced with stressful events attributed to uncontrollable causes and impossible to changedepression and distress may be more difficult to manage.
Therefore, coping strategies that might be helpful for managing depression in the United States such as task persistence and ignoring sensations might not be as effective in Portugal. The 25th of April was not that long ago. Now we can freely choose to wear or not wear a miniskirt, we can decide to show or not show some cleavage.
About Advertise with us. We are romantically independent. We love cooking with you. This story was produced through the travel journalism programs at MatadorU.